Hubungan antara Pajanan Debu Silika dengan Transforming Growth Factor-ß1 Serum pada Pekerja Industri Pengolahan Batu

I Putu Eka Krisnha Wijaya, Ida Bagus Ngurah Rai, I Putu Andrika

Abstract

Pendahuluan. Silikosis merupakan penyakit fibrosis paru yang paling sering terjadi akibat pajanan debu silika. Partikel debu akan menstimulasi makrofag alveolar mengeluarkan mediator proinflamasi untuk proses proliferasi fibroblast dan deposisi kolagen. TGF-β1 merupakan salah satu mediator yang paling banyak diekspresikan dalam terjadinya fibrosis. Saat ini beberapa penelitian belum menunjukkan hasil yang konsisten mengenai hubungan antara pajanan debu silika dan TGF-β1 serum. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemeriksaan pajanan debu silika dan TGF-β1 serum, yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui risiko silikosis pada pekerja industri pengolahan batu.

Metode. Penelitian observasional, studi potong lintang analitik dilaksanakan di tiga perusahaan pengolahan batu (perusahaan X1, X2, dan X3) di Desa Sebudi, Kecamatan Selat, Kabupaten Karangasem, Karangasem pada bulan Maret 2016. Variabel penelitian adalah pajanan debu silika dengan alat pengukur nephelometer, TGF-β1 serum dengan metode ELISA, status gizi melalui timbangan berat badan, serta usia, kebiasaan merokok, dan penggunaan alat pelindung diri (APD) dari wawancara. Uji korelasi Spearman digunakan untuk mengetahui korelasi antara pajanan debu silika dengan TGF-β1 serum. Analisis multivariat regresi linear digunakan untuk menguji pengaruh pajanan debu silika, usia, status gizi, kebiasaan merokok, dan penggunaan APD terhadap TGF-β1 serum.

Hasil. Terdapat 55 sampel pekerja industri pengolahan batu pada penelitian ini. Pada uji korelasi Spearman, didapatkan korelasi signifikan antara pajanan debu silika dengan TGF-β1 serum, (r) = 0,319; p = 0,018. Pada hasil uji analisis multivariat regresi linear, didapatkan pajanan debu silika (p = 0,042) dan status gizi (p = 0,012) memiliki hubungan signifikan dengan TGF-β1 serum.

Simpulan. Dari hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa pajanan debu silika memiliki hubungan dengan peningkatan TGF-β1 serum.

Kata Kunci: Pajanan debu silika, Pekerja industri pengolahan batu, TGF-β1 serum


Association between Silica Dust Exposure and Serum Transforming Growth Factor-β1 in Stone Quarry Workers

Introduction. Silicosis is a disease that most often occurred as a result of silica dust exposure. Silica dust particles will stimulate alveolar macrophages to secrete proinflammatory mediators for fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. TGF-ß1 is one of the most extensively involved mediators in the development of fibrosis. To date, several studies have not shown consistent results regarding the association between silica dust exposure and TGF-β1. This study examined silica dust exposure and serum TGF-β1, which aims to determine the risk of silicosis in stone quarry workers.

Methods. An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted at Company X, Karangasem in March 2016. The studied variables were silica dust exposure using nephelometer dust monitoring, serum TGF-β1 using ELISA method, nutritional status from weight scales, with age, smoking, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) from an interview. Spearman correlation test is used to determine the correlation between silica dust exposure with serum TGF-β1. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to asses the effect of silica dust exposure, age, nutritional status, cigarette smoking, and use of PPE with TGF-β1 serum.

Results. There were 55 samples of stone quarry workers in this study. From the Spearman correlation test, there was a significant correlation between silica dust exposure with serum TGF-β1¬, (r) = 0.319, p = 0.018. In multivariate regression analyzes test, there were significant associations between silica dust exposure and nutritional status with serum TGF-β1, p = 0.042 and p = 0.012.

Conclusions. There was an association between silica dust exposure and increasing serum TGF-β1 of stone quarry workers.


Keywords

Serum TGF-β1, Silica dust exposure, Stone quarry workers

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